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A bmodel (short for brush model) is a model made out of BSP brushes. These are normally called from within the currently loaded BSP map file. Each bmodel uses its own BSP tree; there is a bmodel for worldspawn, as well as bmodels for each brush entity.

The struct used to define bmodels in 🖿bspfile.h is dmodel_t. The "D" might stand for "display", being consistent with other structs in the file.

With the exception of the bmodel used by worldspawn, are called from an entity using *# in the model KV, wherein # is an integer index representing the location of the bmodel in the BSP file. Worldspawn always uses bmodel 0, and does not require a model key; in fact, bmodel 0 cannot be loaded via the model key.

  • In Quake Quake, and by extension GoldSrc GoldSrc, any entity can use bmodels from a separate BSP file from the currently loaded map. If a bmodel is loaded from a separate BSP separate, the worldspawn bmodel will be used.
Note.pngNote:All point entities can use MDLs, SPRs, bmodels, and separate BSP models interchangeably in Quake Quake and GoldSrc GoldSrc.
Some brush entities, such as func_illusionary or func_healthcharger can be used as point entities this way, although the defined model must have been prechached.
Tip.pngTip:In VHLT, pointing zhlt_usemodel to a cycler can be used to streamline this process, ensuring the entities are defined in the correct order in the compiled BSP.
Icon-Important.pngImportant:Bmodels contained in separate BSPs are usually fullbright, because they cannot inherit lighting info from the world.
Tip.pngTip:Use ericw-tools and compile with -dirtdebug to apply some generic ambient occlusion to the standalone BSP model's lightmaps, improving visibility, or (only in GoldSrc) manually paint lightmaps with newbspguy.
  • In Quake II Quake II, and by extension Source Source, only bmodels built into the current map can be used.[confirm]
Note.pngNote:Although the model KV is used for bmodels, sprites, and MDL models, they are not interchangeable in Source Source[confirm]. In Quake II Quake II, only MD2 models and SP2 sprites are interchangeable.