Difference between revisions of "Water (shader)"

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(Major rewrite/reordering, documented $bumptransform, $envmapframe, $cheapwaterstart/enddistance, $blurrefract, $color_flow_timescale, documented what $pseudotranslucent & $waterblendfactor do, $forcefresnel & basetexture flow are in AS, many other changes)
(Some more reordering, changed to use Shader and MatParam templates, fixed 404 Houdini link)
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[[File:L4d2 flowmap user.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Left 4 Dead 2]] introduced [[#Flowing water|flowing water]].]]
 
[[File:L4d2 flowmap user.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Left 4 Dead 2]] introduced [[#Flowing water|flowing water]].]]
  
'''<code>Water</code>''' is a [[material]] [[shader]] used for water. Water in Source is complex, and can be animated, refract and reflect the world in real-time, and flow throughout a map.
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{{Shader|Water}} It creates water that realistically reflects and refracts the world, and that can flow throughout a map.
  
 
== Special behaviour ==
 
== Special behaviour ==
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{{note|In games before {{As}}, there is no <code>[[$basetexture]]</code>. The surface is a combination of fog color, animated bump map, reflection and refraction.}}
 
{{note|In games before {{As}}, there is no <code>[[$basetexture]]</code>. The surface is a combination of fog color, animated bump map, reflection and refraction.}}
  
; <code>$abovewater <[[bool]]></code>
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{{MatParam|$abovewater|bool|Whether this material is used for above or below the water’s surface.}}
: Whether this material is used for above or below the water’s surface.
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{{MatParam|$bottommaterial|material|Required parameter. This is the material ('''not''' texture) to use when underneath the water’s surface. The bottom material must have <code>$reflecttexture</code>, <code>$abovewater</code> and <code>$envmap</code> disabled, but can otherwise do whatever it wants.}}
; <code>$bottommaterial <[[material]]></code>
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{{MatParam|$underwateroverlay|material|Applies a refracting screen overlay when the camera is underwater. Generally used with <code>effects\water_warp01</code>. Requires <code>$abovewater</code> to be 0.|since=EP2}}
: Required field. This is the material ('''not''' texture) to use when underneath the water’s surface. The bottom material must have <code>$reflecttexture</code>, <code>$abovewater</code> and <code>$envmap</code> disabled, but can otherwise do whatever it wants.
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{{MatParam|[[Du/dv_map|$bumpmap]]|texture|dx8=1}}
; <code>$underwateroverlay <material></code> {{EP2 add}}
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{{MatParam|[[normalmap|$normalmap]]|texture|A [[Du/dv map]] for DirectX 8 rendering (<code>$bumpmap</code>), and a [[bump map]] for DirectX 9 and above (<code>$normalmap</code>). These should be animated unless the water is to be perfectly still or you're using a flowmap, which makes an animated bump map redundant.
: Applies a refracting screen overlay when the camera is underwater. Generally used with <code>effects\water_warp01</code>. Requires <code>$abovewater</code> to be 0.
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: {{note|The <code>[[normalmap|$normalmap]]</code> command is unique to the <code>Water</code> shader, and uses a [[normalmap|normal map]]. A [[Du/dv_map|du/dv map]] is used for <code>[[$bumpmap]]</code> when using the <code>Water</code> shader. The <code>[[Du/dv_map|$dudvmap]]</code> command is obsolete.}} {{tip|Use <code>$bumptransform</code> with the [[TextureScroll]] proxy to move the normal map in pre-2006 engine branches.}}}}
; <code>[[Du/dv_map|$bumpmap]] <[[texture]]></code>
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{{MatParam|$dudvframe|int}}
; <code>[[normalmap|$normalmap]] <texture></code>
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{{MatParam|$bumpframe|int|Frame to start the animated du/dv map and bump map on, respectively. Somewhat confusingly, <code>$bumpframe</code> affects <code>$''normal''map</code>, which should be pointing to a [[bump map]].}}
: A [[Du/dv map]] for DirectX 8 rendering (<code>$bumpmap</code>), and a [[bump map]] for DirectX 9 and above (<code>$normalmap</code>). These should be animated unless the water is to be perfectly still or you're using a flowmap, which makes an animated bump map redundant.
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{{MatParam|$bumptransform|matrix|Transforms the bump map texture.
: {{note|The <code>[[normalmap|$normalmap]]</code> command is unique to the <code>Water</code> shader, and uses a [[normalmap|normal map]]. A [[Du/dv_map|du/dv map]] is used for <code>[[$bumpmap]]</code> when using the <code>Water</code> shader. The <code>[[Du/dv_map|$dudvmap]]</code> command is obsolete.}} {{tip|Use <code>$bumptransform</code> with the [[TextureScroll]] proxy to move the normal map in pre-2006 engine branches.}}
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{{VMT UVtransform}}}}
; <code>$dudvframe <[[int]]></code>
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{{MatParam|$scale|vector2|{{todo|What does this do?}}}}
; <code>$bumpframe <int></code>
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{{MatParam|$flashlighttint|float|{{confirm|How much projected textures should tint the water?}}|since=l4d2}}
: Frame to start the animated du/dv map and bump map on, respectively. Somewhat confusingly, <code>$bumpframe</code> affects <code>$''normal''map</code>, which should be pointing to a [[bump map]].
+
{{MatParam|$waterdepth|float|{{todo|What does this do exactly? Seems like it's related to $waterblendfactor, Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt. Found in 2006/2007 code, does it do anything there?}}|since=CSGO}}
; <code>$bumptransform <[[matrix]]></code>
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{{MatParam|$depth_feather|int|{{todo|What does this do exactly? Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt.}}|since=CSGO}}
: Transforms the bump map texture.
 
{{VMT UVtransform}}
 
; <code>$scale <vector2></code>
 
: {{todo|What does this do?}}
 
; <code>$flashlighttint <[[float]]></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: {{confirm|How much projected textures should tint the water?}}
 
; <code>$waterdepth <float></code> {{CSGO add}}
 
: {{todo|What does this do exactly? Seems like it's related to $waterblendfactor, Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt. Found in 2006/2007 code, does it do anything there?}}
 
; <code>$depth_feather <int></code> {{CSGO add}}
 
: {{todo|What does this do exactly? Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt.}}
 
  
 
=== Fog ===
 
=== Fog ===
  
; <code>$fogcolor <[[RGB]] matrix></code>
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{{MatParam|$fogcolor|RGB matrix|Color of the water’s volumetric fog. Generally this value should match the color used in the bottom material.}}
: Color of the water’s volumetric fog. Generally this value should match the color used in the bottom material.
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{{MatParam|$fogenable|bool|Enable volumetric fog for the water.}}
; <code>$fogenable <bool></code>
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{{MatParam|$fogstart|float|Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog starts.
: Enable volumetric fog for the water.
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: {{warning|Must be 0 for edge fading to work properly.}}}}
; <code>$fogstart <float></code>
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{{MatParam|$fogend|float|Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog ends.}}
: Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog starts.  
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{{MatParam|$lightmapwaterfog|bool|Allows the fog to receive [[lightmap]]s, so that static objects can cast shadows onto the water. Must be enabled when the map is compiled.|since=l4d2}}
: {{warning|Must be 0 for edge fading to work properly.}}
 
; <code>$fogend <float></code>
 
: Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog ends.
 
; <code>$lightmapwaterfog <[[bool]]></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: Allows the fog to receive [[lightmap]]s, so that static objects can cast shadows onto the water. Must be enabled when the map is compiled.
 
  
 
=== Reflection ===
 
=== Reflection ===
  
; <code>$reflecttexture <texture></code>
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{{MatParam|$reflecttexture|texture|Texture to use for reflection. For real-time reflections, use <code>[[_rt_WaterReflection]]</code>.}}
: Texture to use for reflection. For real-time reflections, use <code>[[_rt_WaterReflection]]</code>.
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{{MatParam|[[$envmap]]|[[env_cubemap]] / [[texture]]|See <code>[[$envmap]]</code>. Provides reflections for cheap water.
; <code>$envmap <[[env_cubemap]] / [[texture]]></code>
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: {{Note|Don't use this on underwater materials.}}}}
: See <code>[[$envmap]]</code>. Provides reflections for cheap water.
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{{MatParam|$envmapframe|int|The frame to start an animated cubemap on.}}
: {{Note|Don't use this on underwater materials.}}
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{{MatParam|$forceenvmap|bool|Forces the water to use <code>$envmap</code> for reflections.|since=p2}}
; <code>$envmapframe <int></code>
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{{MatParam|$forcecheap|bool|Force the water to render itself as [[cheap]], regardless of the map's {{ent|water_lod_control}} entity settings or the user's settings. This will disable real-time reflection and instead use <code>$envmap</code>. Refraction is assumed to be opaquely the water fog color.}}
: The frame to start an animated cubemap on.
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{{MatParam|$forceexpensive|bool|Force the water to render itself as [[expensive]], regardless of the map's <code>water_lod_control</code> entity settings or the user's settings.}}
; <code>$forceenvmap <bool></code> {{p2 add}}
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{{MatParam|$cheapwaterstartdistance|float|Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should start transitioning to a cheaper water shader.}}
: Forces the water to use <code>$envmap</code> for reflections.
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{{MatParam|$cheapwaterenddistance|float|Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should finish transitioning to a cheaper water shader.}}
; <code>$forcecheap <bool></code>
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{{MatParam|$reflectskyboxonly|bool|Make the water reflect only the [[skybox]].|since=l4d2}}
: Force the water to render itself as [[cheap]], regardless of the map's {{ent|water_lod_control}} entity settings or the user's settings. This will disable real-time reflection and instead use <code>$envmap</code>. Refraction is assumed to be opaquely the water fog color.
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{{MatParam|$reflect2dskybox|bool|Make the water reflect the [[skybox]] material ''in addition'' to other reflections.|since=p2}}
; <code>$forceexpensive <bool></code>
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{{MatParam|$reflect3dskybox|bool|Make the water reflect the 3D skybox ''in addition'' to other reflections. Added in the Danger Zone update and used on '''dz_blacksite.'''
: Force the water to render itself as [[expensive]], regardless of the map's <code>water_lod_control</code> entity settings or the user's settings.
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: {{Note|Requires a {{ent|sky_camera}} entity to be placed in the map, otherwise this might cause crashes.}}|since=CSGO}}
; <code>$cheapwaterstartdistance <float></code>
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{{MatParam|$reflectentities|bool|Make the water reflect entities. By default, no entities are reflected.}}
: Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should start transitioning to a cheaper water shader.
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{{MatParam|$reflectonlymarkedentities|bool|Make the water reflect only entities and static props with "Render in Fast Reflections" enabled.|since=p2}}
; <code>$cheapwaterenddistance <float></code>
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{{MatParam|$reflectamount|float|Amount of warp for the reflection. Higher values produce more visible reflections.}}
: Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should finish transitioning to a cheaper water shader.
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{{MatParam|$reflecttint|RGB matrix|Color tint for the real-time reflection and environment map.}}
; <code>$reflect2dskybox</code> <bool> {{p2 add}}
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{{MatParam|$reflectblendfactor|float|{{todo|What does this do?}}}}
: Make the water reflect the [[skybox]] material ''in addition'' to other reflections.
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{{MatParam|$nofresnel|bool|Disable the fresnel on the water's reflection.
; <code>$reflect3dskybox</code> <bool> {{CSGO add}}
+
: {{Bug|Does not do anything in any engine branch.}}|since=EP1}}
: Make the water reflect the 3D skybox in addition to other reflections. Added in the Danger Zone update and used on ''dz_blacksite.''
+
{{MatParam|$forcefresnel|float|Force this amount of fresnel on the water. Higher values usually cause the water to appear brighter. {{bug|Does not work properly in {{insurgency}}{{doi}}.}}|since=AS}}
: {{Note|Requires a {{ent|sky_camera}} entity to be placed in the map, otherwise this might cause crashes.}}
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{{MatParam|$basereflectance|float|{{todo|What is this?}}}}
; <code>$reflectskyboxonly <bool></code> {{l4d2 add}}
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{{MatParam|$maxreflectance|float|{{todo|What is this?}}}}
: Make the water reflect only the [[skybox]].
 
; <code>$reflectentities <bool></code>
 
: Make the water reflect entities. By default, no entities are reflected.
 
; <code>$reflectonlymarkedentities <bool></code> {{p2 add}}
 
: Make the water reflect only entities and static props with "Render in Fast Reflections" enabled.
 
; <code>$reflectamount <float></code>
 
: Amount of warp for the reflection. Higher values produce more visible reflections.
 
; <code>$reflecttint <[[RGB]] matrix></code>
 
: Color tint for the real-time reflection and environment map.
 
; <code>$reflectblendfactor <float></code>
 
: {{todo|What does this do?}}
 
; <code>$nofresnel <bool></code> {{EP1 add}}
 
: Disable the fresnel on the water's reflection.
 
: {{Bug|Does not do anything in any engine branch.}}
 
; <code>$forcefresnel <float></code> {{AS add}}
 
: Force this amount of fresnel on the water. Higher values usually cause the water to appear brighter. {{bug|Does not work properly in {{insurgency}}{{doi}}.}}
 
; <code>$basereflectance <float></code>
 
: {{todo|What is this?}}
 
; <code>$maxreflectance <float></code>
 
: {{todo|What is this?}}
 
  
 
===Refraction===
 
===Refraction===
  
; <code>$refract <bool></code> {{l4d2 add}}
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{{MatParam|$refract|bool|Whether the material should refract at all.|since=l4d2}}
: Whether the material should refract at all.
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{{MatParam|$refracttexture|texture|Texture to use for refraction. For real-time refractions, use <code>[[_rt_WaterRefraction]]</code>.
; <code>$refractamount <float></code>
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: {{tip|Specify <code>$refracttexture</code> without <code>$reflecttexture</code> to get real-time refraction on <code>$envmap</code> reflections.}}}}
: Amount of warp for the refraction. Higher values produce more warping.
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{{MatParam|$refractamount|float|Amount of warp for the refraction. Higher values produce more warping.}}
; <code>$refracttexture <texture></code>
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{{MatParam|$refracttint|RGB matrix|Color of the refraction.
: Texture to use for refraction. For real-time refractions, use <code>[[_rt_WaterRefraction]]</code>.
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: {{warning|It is recommended that you set this to white or something close to white so that edge transitions work properly on DX9.}}}}
: {{tip|Specify <code>$refracttexture</code> without <code>$reflecttexture</code> to get real-time refraction on <code>$envmap</code> reflections.}}
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{{MatParam|$blurrefract|bool|Blurs the refraction when underwater.
; <code>$refracttint <[[RGB]] matrix></code>
+
: {{warning|Underwater materials only; this will cause buggy behavior on any material with <code>$abovewater</code> set to 1.}}|since=EP2|dx9=1}}
: Color of the refraction.
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{{MatParam|$pseudotranslucent|bool|Make the water translucent. This is a cheap substitute for refractive water; do not use this when refraction is enabled.|since=p2}}
: {{warning|It is recommended that you set this to white or something close to white so that edge transitions work properly on DX9.}}
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{{MatParam|$waterblendfactor|normal|How translucent the water should be when <code>$pseudotranslucent</code> is enabled. At 0, the water is completely transparent, while at 1 the water is completely opaque.|since=p2}}
; <code>$blurrefract <bool></code> {{EP2 add}} {{dx9}}
 
: Applies a blur to the refraction when underwater.
 
: {{warning|Underwater materials only; this will cause buggy behavior on any material with <code>$abovewater</code> set to 1.}}
 
; <code>$pseudotranslucent <bool></code> {{p2 add}}
 
: Make the water translucent. This is a cheap substitute for refractive water; do not use this when refraction is enabled.
 
; <code>$waterblendfactor <[[normal]]></code> {{p2 add}}
 
: How translucent the water should be when <code>$pseudotranslucent</code> is enabled. At 0, the water is completely transparent, while at 1 the water is completely opaque.
 
  
 
; [[Image:Orange Box Scrolling Water.png|right|300px|Size/angle of $scroll1 and $scroll2]]
 
; [[Image:Orange Box Scrolling Water.png|right|300px|Size/angle of $scroll1 and $scroll2]]
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==== Flowmaps ====
 
==== Flowmaps ====
 
[[File:L4d2 flowmap tex.jpg|right|200px|A flowmap texture.]] [[File:L4d2 flowmap dev.jpg|right|200px|The flowmap texture in-engine, shown with $flow_debug 1.]] [[File:L4d2 flowmap user.jpg|right|200px|The result in-engine.]]  
 
[[File:L4d2 flowmap tex.jpg|right|200px|A flowmap texture.]] [[File:L4d2 flowmap dev.jpg|right|200px|The flowmap texture in-engine, shown with $flow_debug 1.]] [[File:L4d2 flowmap user.jpg|right|200px|The result in-engine.]]  
; <code>$flowmap <texture></code> {{l4d2 add}}
+
{{MatParam|$flowmap|texture|Texture that defines flow velocity by skewing and scrolling the <code>$normalmap</code>. Valve generates their flowmaps with [https://www.sidefx.com/products/houdini/ Houdini].
: Texture that defines flow velocity by skewing and scrolling the <code>$normalmap</code>. Valve generates their flowmaps with [http://www.sidefx.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1774&Itemid=343 Houdini]
+
: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v{{=}}iY6vkpQDcpU Video of the effect.] For technical details, see [https://steamcdn-a.akamaihd.net/apps/valve/2010/siggraph2010_vlachos_waterflow.pdf Alex Vlachos' SIGGRAPH 2010 paper] and [https://steamcdn-a.akamaihd.net/apps/valve/2011/gdc_2011_grimes_nonstandard_textures.pdf Valve's GDC 2011 paper].|since=l4d2}}
: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iY6vkpQDcpU Video of the effect.] For technical details, see [https://steamcdn-a.akamaihd.net/apps/valve/2010/siggraph2010_vlachos_waterflow.pdf Alex Vlachos' SIGGRAPH 2010 paper] and [https://steamcdn-a.akamaihd.net/apps/valve/2011/gdc_2011_grimes_nonstandard_textures.pdf Valve's GDC 2011 paper].  
+
{{MatParam|$flow_normaluvscale|float|The number of world units covered by the normal map before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.|since=l4d2}}
; <code>$flow_normaluvscale <float></code> {{l4d2 add}}
+
{{MatParam|$flow_worlduvscale|float|The number of times the flow map fits into the material. Face texture scale affects this.|since=l4d2}}
: The number of world units covered by the normal map before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.
+
{{MatParam|$flow_uvscrolldistance|float|How far along the flow map the normal map should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.|since=l4d2}}
; <code>$flow_worlduvscale <float></code> {{l4d2 add}}
+
{{MatParam|$flow_timeintervalinseconds|float|Time needed for the normal map to cross the <code>$flow_uvscrolldistance</code>.|since=l4d2}}
: The number of times the flow map fits into the material. Face texture scale affects this.
+
{{MatParam|$flow_timescale|float|Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.|since=l4d2}}
; <code>$flow_uvscrolldistance <float></code>  {{l4d2 add}}
+
{{MatParam|$flow_bumpstrength|normal|How rough the surface of the water is.|since=l4d2}}
: How far along the flow map the normal map should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.
+
{{MatParam|$flow_noise_texture|texture|A treatment texture used to break up repetition of the normal map.|since=l4d2}}
; <code>$flow_timeintervalinseconds <float></code> {{l4d2 add}}
+
{{MatParam|$flow_noise_scale|float|How many times to fit the noise texture into the normal map. Typically around 0.01.|since=l4d2}}
: Time needed for the normal map to cross the <code>$flow_uvscrolldistance</code>.
+
{{MatParam|$flow_debug|bool|Replaces the water surface with a literal rendering of the flow map. {{bug|Although the flow map will show up in Hammer, it may not be in the correct place! Don't rely on Hammer's view for alignment.}}|since=l4d2}}
; <code>$flow_timescale <float></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.
 
; <code>$flow_bumpstrength <normal></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: How rough the surface of the water is.
 
; <code>$flow_noise_texture <texture></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: A treatment texture used to break up repetition of the normal map.
 
; <code>$flow_noise_scale <float></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: How many times to fit the noise texture into the normal map. Typically around 0.01.
 
; <code>$flow_debug <bool></code> {{l4d2 add}}
 
: Replaces the water surface with a literal rendering of the flow map. {{bug|Although the flow map will show up in Hammer, it may not be in the correct place! Don't rely on Hammer's view for alignment.}}
 
  
 
==== Basetexture Flow ====
 
==== Basetexture Flow ====
; <code>$basetexture <texture></code> {{AS add}}
+
{{MatParam|$basetexture|texture|A "sludge layer", used in {{portal2}} for the sludge and debris in test chambers. The alpha channel of the <code>$basetexture</code> acts as a mask for the reflection; darker values are more reflective, while lighter values are less reflective.
: A "sludge layer", used in {{portal2}} for the sludge in the test chambers. The alpha channel of the <code>$basetexture</code> controls the strength of the reflection; darker values are more reflective, while lighter values are less reflective.
+
: {{Note|From {{portal2}} onwards, the opacity of the <code>$basetexture</code> is controlled by the alpha channel of the flowmap.}}|since=AS}}
; <code>$color_flow_uvscale <float></code> {{AS add}}
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_uvscale|float|The number of world units covered by the base texture before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.|since=AS}}
: The number of world units covered by the base texture before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_timescale|float|Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.|since=AS}}
; <code>$color_flow_timescale <float></code> {{AS add}}
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_timeintervalinseconds|float|Time needed for the base texture to cross the <code>$color_flow_uvscrolldistance</code>.|since=AS}}
: Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_uvscrolldistance|float|How far along the flow map the base texture should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.|since=AS}}
; <code>$color_flow_timeintervalinseconds <float></code> {{AS add}}
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_lerpexp|float|How sharp the transition should be between repeats, should be 1.
: Time needed for the base texture to cross the <code>$color_flow_uvscrolldistance</code>.
+
: {{todo|Better explanation}}|since=AS}}
; <code>$color_flow_uvscrolldistance <float></code> {{AS add}}
+
{{MatParam|$color_flow_displacebynormalstrength|float|How much the normal map affects the base texture. Uses extremely low values, usually 0.01 or less.|since=p2}}
: How far along the flow map the base texture should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.
 
; <code>$color_flow_lerpexp <float></code> {{AS add}}
 
: How sharp the transition should be between repeats, should be 1.
 
: {{todo|Better explanation}}
 
; <code>$color_flow_displacebynormalstrength <float></code> {{p2 add}}
 
: How much the normal map affects the base texture. Uses extremely low values, usually 0.01 or less.
 
  
 
==== Authoring a flow map ====
 
==== Authoring a flow map ====
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=== Other ===
 
=== Other ===
  
; <code>%compilewater <bool></code>
+
{{MatParam|%compilewater|bool|This is needed to make a map using the material compile properly.}}
: This is needed to make a map using the material compile properly.
+
{{MatParam|$surfaceprop|water|Tells the physics system that the surface is water. See [[$surfaceprop]].}}
; <code>$surfaceprop water</code>
+
{{MatParam|%tooltexture|texture|Defines the texture Hammer will display in the material browser.}}
: Tells the physics system that the surface is water. See [[$surfaceprop]].
 
; <code>%tooltexture <texture></code>
 
: Defines the texture Hammer will display in the material browser.
 
 
; <code>WaterLOD proxy</code>
 
; <code>WaterLOD proxy</code>
 
: This connects the [[water_lod_control]] entity in a level to the water’s internal parameters. This must be declared in the material for the LOD mechanisms to work properly.
 
: This connects the [[water_lod_control]] entity in a level to the water’s internal parameters. This must be declared in the material for the LOD mechanisms to work properly.
Line 210: Line 149:
 
*[[True reflections under CSS:fr|True reflections under CSS]] (French)
 
*[[True reflections under CSS:fr|True reflections under CSS]] (French)
  
[[Category:Shaders]]
 
[[Category:List of Shader Parameters]]
 
 
[[Category:Water]]
 
[[Category:Water]]

Revision as of 22:54, 7 June 2019

Water reflecting entities in real-time in Episode Two.

Water is a material shader available in all Source games. It creates water that realistically reflects and refracts the world, and that can flow throughout a map.

Special behaviour

Expensive and cheap
Water materials fall into two groups: expensive and cheap. Expensive water reflects and refracts the world in real-time, while cheap water uses an $envmap and does not refract. Users can disable expensive water rendering through their video options, so always place env_cubemaps.
Above and below
Water actually requires two materials: one for above the surface and one for below. These materials are independent of each other, but of course for proper effect need to correlate in most areas.
Flow Mapping
Water can flow in arbitrary directions. It's very tricky to create a flow map by hand however, and the tool Valve used internally hasn't been released.

Shader parameters

Textures

Note:In games before <Alien Swarm>, there is no $basetexture. The surface is a combination of fog color, animated bump map, reflection and refraction.
$abovewater <boolean>
Whether this material is used for above or below the water’s surface.
$bottommaterial <material>
Required parameter. This is the material (not texture) to use when underneath the water’s surface. The bottom material must have $reflecttexture, $abovewater and $envmap disabled, but can otherwise do whatever it wants.
$underwateroverlay <material> (in all games since EP2)
Applies a refracting screen overlay when the camera is underwater. Generally used with effects\water_warp01. Requires $abovewater to be 0.
$bumpmap <texture>  (DX8)
$normalmap <texture>
A Du/dv map for DirectX 8 rendering ($bumpmap), and a bump map for DirectX 9 and above ($normalmap). These should be animated unless the water is to be perfectly still or you're using a flowmap, which makes an animated bump map redundant.
Note:The $normalmap command is unique to the Water shader, and uses a normal map. A du/dv map is used for $bumpmap when using the Water shader. The $dudvmap command is obsolete.
Tip:Use $bumptransform with the TextureScroll proxy to move the normal map in pre-2006 engine branches.
$dudvframe <integer>
$bumpframe <integer>
Frame to start the animated du/dv map and bump map on, respectively. Somewhat confusingly, $bumpframe affects $normalmap, which should be pointing to a bump map.
$bumptransform <matrix>
Transforms the bump map texture.
The default position is "center .5 .5 scale 1 1 rotate 0 translate 0 0".
  1. center defines the point of rotation. Only useful if rotate is being used.
  2. scale fits the texture into the material the given number of times. '2 1' is a 50% scale in the X axis.
  3. rotate rotates the texture counter-clockwise in degrees. Accepts any number, including negatives.
  4. translate shifts the texture by the given numbers. '.5' will shift it half-way.
Note:All values must be included!
Bug: Scaling the texture may cause odd issues where the Texture Lock tool in Hammer will not actually lock the texture in place.
Bug: Rotating textures applied on brushes will rotate around the map origin (confirm: Orangebox engine only?). A fix for this is to change the center position in the VMT to the brush's origin.
$scale <vector2>
To do: What does this do?
$flashlighttint <float> (in all games since l4d2)
Confirm:How much projected textures should tint the water?
$waterdepth <float> (in all games since CSGO)
To do: What does this do exactly? Seems like it's related to $waterblendfactor, Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt. Found in 2006/2007 code, does it do anything there?
$depth_feather <integer> (in all games since CSGO)
To do: What does this do exactly? Found in liquids/nuke_water.vmt.

Fog

$fogcolor <RGB matrix>
Color of the water’s volumetric fog. Generally this value should match the color used in the bottom material.
$fogenable <boolean>
Enable volumetric fog for the water.
$fogstart <float>
Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog starts.
Warning: Must be 0 for edge fading to work properly.
$fogend <float>
Distance in inches from the eye at which water fog ends.
$lightmapwaterfog <boolean> (in all games since l4d2)
Allows the fog to receive lightmaps, so that static objects can cast shadows onto the water. Must be enabled when the map is compiled.

Reflection

$reflecttexture <texture>
Texture to use for reflection. For real-time reflections, use _rt_WaterReflection.
$envmap <[[env_cubemap / texture]]>
See $envmap. Provides reflections for cheap water.
Note:Don't use this on underwater materials.
$envmapframe <integer>
The frame to start an animated cubemap on.
$forceenvmap <boolean> (in all games since p2)
Forces the water to use $envmap for reflections.
$forcecheap <boolean>
Force the water to render itself as cheap, regardless of the map's water_lod_control entity settings or the user's settings. This will disable real-time reflection and instead use $envmap. Refraction is assumed to be opaquely the water fog color.
$forceexpensive <boolean>
Force the water to render itself as expensive, regardless of the map's water_lod_control entity settings or the user's settings.
$cheapwaterstartdistance <float>
Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should start transitioning to a cheaper water shader.
$cheapwaterenddistance <float>
Distance from the eye in inches that the shader should finish transitioning to a cheaper water shader.
$reflectskyboxonly <boolean> (in all games since l4d2)
Make the water reflect only the skybox.
$reflect2dskybox <boolean> (in all games since p2)
Make the water reflect the skybox material in addition to other reflections.
$reflect3dskybox <boolean> (in all games since CSGO)
Make the water reflect the 3D skybox in addition to other reflections. Added in the Danger Zone update and used on dz_blacksite.
Note:Requires a sky_camera entity to be placed in the map, otherwise this might cause crashes.
$reflectentities <boolean>
Make the water reflect entities. By default, no entities are reflected.
$reflectonlymarkedentities <boolean> (in all games since p2)
Make the water reflect only entities and static props with "Render in Fast Reflections" enabled.
$reflectamount <float>
Amount of warp for the reflection. Higher values produce more visible reflections.
$reflecttint <RGB matrix>
Color tint for the real-time reflection and environment map.
$reflectblendfactor <float>
To do: What does this do?
$nofresnel <boolean> (in all games since EP1)
Disable the fresnel on the water's reflection.
Bug: Does not do anything in any engine branch.
$forcefresnel <float> (in all games since AS)
Force this amount of fresnel on the water. Higher values usually cause the water to appear brighter.
Bug: Does not work properly in <Insurgency><Day of Infamy>.
$basereflectance <float>
To do: What is this?
$maxreflectance <float>
To do: What is this?

Refraction

$refract <boolean> (in all games since l4d2)
Whether the material should refract at all.
$refracttexture <texture>
Texture to use for refraction. For real-time refractions, use _rt_WaterRefraction.
Tip:Specify $refracttexture without $reflecttexture to get real-time refraction on $envmap reflections.
$refractamount <float>
Amount of warp for the refraction. Higher values produce more warping.
$refracttint <RGB matrix>
Color of the refraction.
Warning: It is recommended that you set this to white or something close to white so that edge transitions work properly on DX9.
$blurrefract <boolean> (in all games since EP2)  (DX9+)
Blurs the refraction when underwater.
Warning: Underwater materials only; this will cause buggy behavior on any material with $abovewater set to 1.
$pseudotranslucent <boolean> (in all games since p2)
Make the water translucent. This is a cheap substitute for refractive water; do not use this when refraction is enabled.
$waterblendfactor <normal> (in all games since p2)
How translucent the water should be when $pseudotranslucent is enabled. At 0, the water is completely transparent, while at 1 the water is completely opaque.
Size/angle of $scroll1 and $scroll2

Flowing water

$scroll1 "[<normal X> <normal Y>]" (New with Half-Life 2: Episode One / Source 2006)
$scroll2 "[<normal X> <normal Y>]" (New with Half-Life 2: Episode One / Source 2006)
If $scroll1 is defined and X is not zero, two more instances of the normal map will be drawn in such a way that they are merged together. The first layer is 7x larger and rotated 45°; the second is 2x larger and rotated 90°. The parameters specify the speed and direction that the extra layers will move. (Valve's materials usually contain a third number, but it doesn't have any apparent effect and is most likely obsolete.)

Flowmaps

A flowmap texture.
The flowmap texture in-engine, shown with $flow_debug 1.
The result in-engine.
$flowmap <texture> (in all games since l4d2)
Texture that defines flow velocity by skewing and scrolling the $normalmap. Valve generates their flowmaps with Houdini.
Video of the effect. For technical details, see Alex Vlachos' SIGGRAPH 2010 paper and Valve's GDC 2011 paper.
$flow_normaluvscale <float> (in all games since l4d2)
The number of world units covered by the normal map before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.
$flow_worlduvscale <float> (in all games since l4d2)
The number of times the flow map fits into the material. Face texture scale affects this.
$flow_uvscrolldistance <float> (in all games since l4d2)
How far along the flow map the normal map should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.
$flow_timeintervalinseconds <float> (in all games since l4d2)
Time needed for the normal map to cross the $flow_uvscrolldistance.
$flow_timescale <float> (in all games since l4d2)
Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.
$flow_bumpstrength <normal> (in all games since l4d2)
How rough the surface of the water is.
$flow_noise_texture <texture> (in all games since l4d2)
A treatment texture used to break up repetition of the normal map.
$flow_noise_scale <float> (in all games since l4d2)
How many times to fit the noise texture into the normal map. Typically around 0.01.
$flow_debug <boolean> (in all games since l4d2)
Replaces the water surface with a literal rendering of the flow map.
Bug: Although the flow map will show up in Hammer, it may not be in the correct place! Don't rely on Hammer's view for alignment.

Basetexture Flow

$basetexture <texture> (in all games since AS)
A "sludge layer", used in [Portal 2] for the sludge and debris in test chambers. The alpha channel of the $basetexture acts as a mask for the reflection; darker values are more reflective, while lighter values are less reflective.
Note:From [Portal 2] onwards, the opacity of the $basetexture is controlled by the alpha channel of the flowmap.
$color_flow_uvscale <float> (in all games since AS)
The number of world units covered by the base texture before it repeats. Typically in the 100s.
$color_flow_timescale <float> (in all games since AS)
Modifies flow speed without affecting the amount of distortion.
$color_flow_timeintervalinseconds <float> (in all games since AS)
Time needed for the base texture to cross the $color_flow_uvscrolldistance.
$color_flow_uvscrolldistance <float> (in all games since AS)
How far along the flow map the base texture should be distorted. Higher values lead to more distortion.
$color_flow_lerpexp <float> (in all games since AS)
How sharp the transition should be between repeats, should be 1.
To do: Better explanation
$color_flow_displacebynormalstrength <float> (in all games since p2)
How much the normal map affects the base texture. Uses extremely low values, usually 0.01 or less.

Authoring a flow map

Directions of water flow depend on the red and green channels of the flow map.

Overall, trying to create a flow map manually is a nightmare. Painting the flowmap, fitting it into the world, and painting foam, is extremely difficult.

But if you do want to give it a try, flow direction is read from the red and green channels of the flow map. 50% tone means no movement.

The texture scale of any faces using a water texture with a flow map appear to have a direct correlation on the flow map. The fewer water faces or planes you use the easier the process of authoring a custom flow map will be (selecting all of your water faces and using 'treat as one' when using the fit scaling may also be an option)

Red channel
X axis
Green channel
Y axis
Alpha channel
Controls $basetexture blend from [Portal 2] onwards.
There are now tools to assist in painting flowmaps.
Flow field editor from algoholic.eu : http://algoholic.eu/another-flow-field-editor-update/
Flowmap generator (paid): http://www.superpositiongames.com/products/flowmap-generator
Creating flowmaps using Houdini (UDK) : https://www.dropbox.com/s/ii2x077vj64lyhl/Water%20Flow%20For%20UDK.pdf

Other

%compilewater <boolean>
This is needed to make a map using the material compile properly.
$surfaceprop <water>
Tells the physics system that the surface is water. See $surfaceprop.
%tooltexture <texture>
Defines the texture Hammer will display in the material browser.
WaterLOD proxy
This connects the water_lod_control entity in a level to the water’s internal parameters. This must be declared in the material for the LOD mechanisms to work properly.

See also