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Observation Rooms are rooms high on the walls in the test chambers of Aperture's testing tracks. They were orignally where Aperture Employees observed Test Subjects during their testing sequences, but these offices have since been abandoned. They are characterized by bright white and concrete wall textures, tiled floors and ceilings, refracting glass windows, and sometimes computers and desks and other decaying equipment. They are also the main source of light in most test chambers and range in size from 128x64 to 128x256.
There are several textures and props available in hammer for Portal 2 to create your own. A light_spot entity is also recommended.
In Portal 2, you can find observation room instances in the instances/labs folder.
2 units observation roons on Puzzlemaker maps have a projected texture attatched to it. 1 unit are normal ones.
For more information on making instances, go to func_instance.