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An instance is a map (.vmf) file referenced inside another map through a func_instance, possibly aided by a func_instance_parms and/or func_instance_io_proxy.

Note.png Note: While working inside Hammer for all Source games, instances are currently only supported by the map compilers for <Left 4 Dead 2>Left 4 Dead 2, <Alien Swarm>Alien Swarm, [Portal 2]Portal 2, <Team Fortress 2>Team Fortress 2, and Counter-Strike: Global OffensiveCounter-Strike: Global Offensive, and will therefore not work for any other games. To use them in unsupported games, see below.
Note.png Note: In <Team Fortress 2>Team Fortress 2 instances have some broken or missing functionality: instance I/O system is unsupported, instances cannot be nested, displacements within an instance may not compile properly and any env_cubemaps inside of an instance will not be compiled into the final map.

Instances are helpful in many ways:

  • They provide a more dynamic alternative to prefabs, as any changes to the instanced map will be reflected in all instances of it.
  • They provide an alternative to visgroups, as they can be used to divide a large, unwieldy map into several smaller, manageable ones (that can even be worked on by multiple authors simultaneously).
  • They provide a simple way to edit portions of a map that needs to be at a non-orthogonal angle. (Build the map on-grid inside a separate map, and then instance it into another map through a func_instance rotated at the correct angle.
  • They provide a way for maps to work on multiple platforms, such as Left 4 Dead and Left 4 Dead 2 versions of the same map.

How to

In Portal 2 to give input to an entity within a instance use this:

My Output Target Entity Target Input Parameter Delay Only Once
Io11.png <Output> <Instance> instance:<entity>;<input> <none> 0.00 No

Or, alternatively, you can do this:

My Output Target Entity Target Input Parameter Delay Only Once
Io11.png <Output> <Instance>-<entity> <input> <none> 0.00 No


To do

Workaround for any Source game

To use instances in unsupported Engine versions, Metapyziks wrote a program that merges used instances with the main VMF.

Also see

External links