Difference between revisions of "Developer Console Control:zh-cn"

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这篇文档解释了怎样编写 [[console|控制台]] 的代码, 也关于怎样创建控制台命令与变量. 看看 [[Developer Console|开发者控制台]] 来对控制台的功能有个基本了解.
 
这篇文档解释了怎样编写 [[console|控制台]] 的代码, 也关于怎样创建控制台命令与变量. 看看 [[Developer Console|开发者控制台]] 来对控制台的功能有个基本了解.
  
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[[Category:Programming:zh-cn|程序]]
 
[[Category:Programming:zh-cn|程序]]

Revision as of 09:38, 9 March 2011

English Русский

这篇文档解释了怎样编写 控制台 的代码, 也关于怎样创建控制台命令与变量. 看看 开发者控制台 来对控制台的功能有个基本了解.

Printing to the console

Printing text to the console is done the same way in all modules, since the Tier0 debug layer provides these routines. 三个最常见的函数是 Msg(), DevMsg()Warning() 支持 VarArgs, 例如 sprintf():

DevMsg (char const* pMsg, ... )	- only in developer mode
Msg(char const* pMsg, ... )	- always, white
Warning(char const *pMsg, ... )	- always, red

向下兼容 HL1 的源代码,您仍然可以使用 Con_Printf()Con_DPrintf().

执行命令

引擎对服务端与客户端提供了 执行玩家输入的命令 (字符串)的接口. 服务端要使用此接口 IVEngineServer::ServerCommand():

engine->ServerCommand("changelevel de_dust\n");

客户端则使用 IVEngineClient 能够在两种函数中选择, 这依赖于是否命令实在客户端执行还是直接被发送到服务端:

engine->ServerCmd( "say hello\n" ); // send command to server

engine->ClientCmd( "say hello\n" ); // execute command on client
Note:您不能传递动态变量到这些函数. 当代码编译时,素有参数必须为常量.

添加新的命令与变量

开发者控制台是 Source 引擎的子系统,并且通过一个公共接口 ICvar ( 请看 \public\icvar.h) 它可以被其他的模块所调用. 这些接口允许注册新的命令与查找/迭代(?iterating)已存在的命令. 这些接口通过全局 CVAR 游戏中的 server/client 代码 (cv in engine code). 控制台命令ConCommandConVar 下的控制台变量 里执行, 这两者都基于类 ConCommandBase (看看 \public\convar.h).

太你家命令或变量十分简单,并且在服务端与客户端(甚至是引擎)的模块中,代码是相同的. 这些类的构造会在控制台系统中自动记录下命令. 下面这个简短的例子展示了 添加一个新的命令 my_function 和一个新的初值为 42 的变量 my_variable :

#include <convar.h>
ConVar my_variable( "my_variable", "42", FCVAR_ARCHIVE, "My favorite number" );	

void MyFunction_f( void )
{
    Msg("This is my function\n");
}

ConCommand my_function( "my_function", MyFunction_f, "Shows a message.", FCVAR_CHEAT );

一般让对象的名称与命令的名称相同,变量单独在一个源文件中使用并且声明为静态的.

使用 ConVar 类

ConVars 保存了那些可通过控制台或者 config.cfg 中的内容 来改变的变量. 我们来看看最常用的结构:

ConVar( char const *pName,
	char const *pDefaultValue,
	int flags,
	char const *pHelpString )

第一个参数 pName 是一个变量名 (不包含空格), 紧接着的 pDefaultValue, 通常被用作一个 ConVars 下的数值型的字符串. Flags 确定变量 &mdash 中的特殊字符; 所有的 flag 以 FCVAR_ 作为前缀被定义. 更多的关于 flags 的东东可以在这里找到 below. 最好也提供一个 pHelpString, 这样玩家对这个变量的作用能有所了解. ConVars 并没有被限定为固定类型, 他们的值可以是 整型(integer) 、 浮点型(float) 或 字符串(string) ,你喜欢什么就用什么. 只要您让 ConVar (?object itself) 或作为一个指针, 您可以直接存取或修改它的值. 下面这些例子都是有效的并且有相同的结果:

if ( my_variable.GetInt() == 42 ) DoSomething();
if ( my_variable.GetFloat() == 42.0f ) DoSomething();
if ( strcmp(my_variable.GetString(), "42")==0 ) DoSomething();

设置 ConVar 的值,您可以使用 SetValue() 函数, 它同样允许各种类型的值:

my_variable.SetValue( 42 );
my_variable.SetValue( 42.0f );
my_variable.SetValue( "42" );

任何时候您都可以使用 Revert() 函数 使 ConVar 回到他的初始默认值.

如果 ConVar 在不同的模块中被创建,在变量名为已知的情况下 ICvar 接口函数 FindVar() 可以被用来指向这个对象. 这是一个代价很大的搜索功能,如果经常重复使用,指针将被缓存. 这里是一个例子展示了怎样查找在引擎模块中定义的 ConVar sv_cheats :

ConVar *pCheats  = cvar->FindVar( "sv_cheats" );

	if ( pCheats && pCheats->GetInt() == 1 ) AllowCheating();

不同情况下,对于 ConVars 的有效的数值范围需要被指定. 无论何时手动改变了, ConVar 都会自动被控制台系统所检查. 如果输入的数值超出了范围, 它将被替换为最相近的值. 设置有效范围为 1 到 100 :

ConVar my_variable( "my_variable", "42", 0, "helptext", true, 1, true, 100 );

当玩家或者另一个子系统改变了您的 ConVar 值时,您可能会需要一个通知, 因此,一个回显函数就需要被安置:

static void OnChangeMyVariable ( ConVar *var, char const *pOldString )
{
	DevMsg( "ConVar %s was changed from %s to %s\n", var->GetName(), pOldString, var->GetString() );
}

ConVar my_variable( "my_variable", "42", 0, "My favorite number", OnChangeMyVariable );

Using the ConCommand class

The class ConCommand does not store a value, but instead executes a procedure as soon as it is invoked. It is simpler than the ConVar and has just one constructor:

ConCommand( char const *pName,
	FnCommandCallback callback,
	char const *pHelpString = 0,
	int flags = 0,
	FnCommandCompletionCallback completionFunc = 0 );

As in ConVar, pName specifies the command name (no spaces). callback is the function executed when a user runs this command and both pHelpString and flags have the same function as in ConVar. ConCommands supports auto completion for the first parameter, which is useful especially for commands that process files. For example, if you have a command loadtext lt;textfilegt; that expects a .txt file as input, the console scans for all available .txt files and allows the user to choose one from a list. If a valid completionFunc is passed, it will be called whenever the console system needs a list of available arguments.

When the callback function is executed, the parameters entered in the console are not passed as function arguments. The callback function has to query the engine how many arguments where given using the engine interface function Cmd_Argc(). Then you can look at single arguments using Cmd_Argv(index), where index 1 is the first argument. The arguments are always returned as strings.

void MySay_f ( void )
{
	if ( engine->Cmd_Argc() < 1 )
	{
		Msg("Usage: my_say <text>\n");
		return;
	}

	Msg("I say: %s\n", engine->Cmd_Argv(1) );
}

ConCommand my_say( "my_say", MySay_f, "say something", 0);

Here an example how to build a simple auto complete list. The partial parameter isn't used here; it contains the characters entered so far (including the command name itself) :

static int MySayAutoComplete ( char const *partial, 
char commands[ COMMAND_COMPLETION_MAXITEMS ][ COMMAND_COMPLETION_ITEM_LENGTH ] )
{
	strcpy( commands[0], "hello" );
	strcpy( commands[1], "goodbye" );
	return 2; // number of entries
}

ConCommand my_say( "my_say", MySay_f, "say something", 0, MySayAutoComplete);

The FCVAR flags

The console command/variable flags can specify quite powerful characteristics and must be handled with care. These flags are usually set in the constructor but may be modified with ConCommandBase::AddFlags() (not used very often). It's not possible to change these flags other than in source code to avoid cheating.

Some flags must be set manually, but those in the list below are set automatically by the console system:

  • FCVAR_LAUNCHER
  • FCVAR_GAMEDLL
  • FCVAR_CLIENTDLL
  • FCVAR_MATERIAL_SYSTEM
  • FCVAR_STUDIORENDER

The remaining flags must be set manually:

FCVAR_CHEAT
Most commands and variables are for debugging proposes and not removed in release builds since they are useful 3rd party developers and map makers too. Unfortunately we cannot allow normal players to use these debugging tools since it's an unfair advantage over other players (cheating). A good rule is to add FCVAR_CHEAT basically to every new console command you add unless it's an explicit and legitimate options setting for players. Experience shows that even the most harmless looking debugging command can be misused as a cheat somehow.
The game server's setting of sv_cheats decides if cheats are enabled or not. If a client connects to a server where cheats are disabled (should be the default case), all client side console variables labeled as FCVAR_CHEAT are reverted to their default values and can't be changed as long as the client stays connected. Console commands marked as FCVAR_CHEAT can't be executed either.
FCVAR_USERINFO
Some console variables contain client information the server needs to know about, like the player's name or his network settings. These variables must be flagged as FCVAR_USERINFO, so they get transmitted to the server and updated every time the user changes them. When the player changes one of these variables the engine notifies the server code via ClientSettingsChanged(). Then the game server can query the engine for specific client settings with GetClientConVarValue().
FCVAR_REPLICATED
Game server and client are using shared code where it's important that both sides run the exact same path using the same data (e.g. predicted movement/weapons, game rules). If this code uses console variables, they must match the same values on both sides. The flag FCVAR_REPLICATED ensures that by broadcasting these values to all clients. While connected, clients can't change these values and are forced to use the server-side values.
FCVAR_ARCHIVE
Some console variables contain user specific settings we want to restore each time the game is started (like name or network_rate). If a console variable is labeled as FCVAR_ARCHIVE, it is saved in the file config.cfg when the game shuts down and is reloaded with the next start. (Also the command host_writeconfig stores all FCVAR_ARCHIVE variables to a file).
FCVAR_NOTIFY
If a console variable is flagged as FCVAR_NOTIFY, a server sends a notification message to all clients whenever this variable is changed. This should be used for variables that change game play rules, which are important for all players (mp_friendlyfire etc).
FCVAR_PROTECTED
If console variables contain private information (passwords etc), we don't want them to be visible to other players. Then the FCVAR_PROTECTED flag should be set to label this information as confidential.
FCVAR_SPONLY
Sometimes executing commands or changing variables may be valid only in single player mode. If this is the case then label these commands as FCVAR_SPONLY.
FCVAR_PRINTABLEONLY
Some important variables are logged or broadcasted (gamerules etc) and it is important that they contain only printable characters (no control chars etc).
FCVAR_NEVER_AS_STRING
The FCVAR_NEVER_AS_STRING flag tells the engine never to print this variable as a string since it contains control sequences.
FCVAR_DEMO
When starting to record a demo file, some console variables must explicitly be added to the recording to ensure a correct playback.
FCVAR_DONTRECORD
This is the opposite of FCVAR_DEMO, some console commands shouldn't be recorded in demo files.

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